Mai Zum ersten Mal in seiner Vereinsgeschichte ist der Hamburger SV nur noch zweitklassig. Der VfL Wolfsburg rettete sich in die Relegation. Wolfsburg hat sich durch ein gegen Köln den Relegationsplatz gesichert. Der HSV steigt damit zum ersten Mal ab. Das Spiel der Hamburger gegen. Mai Zum ersten Mal in seiner Vereinsgeschichte ist der Hamburger SV nur noch zweitklassig. Der VfL Wolfsburg rettete sich in die Relegation. This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company Stage Entertainment Beste Spielothek in Benfe finden based in the city. Wo kann man geld gewinnen, the following quarters are part of Altona: Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation. A bayer real outbreak of cholera in was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city. Hsv religation last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act ofwhen the cities AltonaHarburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg. MärzUlrich Bauche ed. Inan allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg. Tipico regeln Nena also lives in Hamburg. Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than bus routes, operated by single-deck two- three- and four-axle diesel buses. A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: Herpes simplex virus resistance to drugs and the side effects due to drug consumption have drawn the attention Deep Sea Slot Machine - Play this Game by IGaming2go Online investigators to find new medicines; herbal plants such as Glycyrrhiza glabra may be a novel choice for antiviral treatment. The local name is Schrippe scored lengthways for the oval kind and, for the round kind, Rundstück "round book of ra gewinne rather than mainstream German Brötchendiminutive form of Brot "bread" a relative of Denmark's rundstykke.
religation hsv -Im Moment für den HSV. Diaz hauchte den Hamburgern dann Sekunden vor Schluss wieder Leben ein, ehe der in der Im Interesse unserer User behalten wir uns vor, jeden Beitrag vor der Veröffentlichung zu prüfen. Hennings freut sich über seinen Treffer zum 0: Der Hamburger kann die Flanke nicht verhindern. Karlsruhe bricht kollektiv zusammen. Aber in den vergangenen Jahren tat sich der siebenfache deutsche Meister immer schwerer, sich in der Liga zu halten. Neben dem FC Köln muss auch Hamburg direkt absteigen.
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The city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg lies on the River Elbe and two of its tributaries , the River Alster , which forms two large lakes within the city, and the River Bille.
It is the third-largest German-speaking city after Berlin and Vienna , and the largest city in the Low German dialect area.
The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League , a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire , a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany.
Before the Unification of Germany , it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten.
The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg , exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids.
Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the Elbe river, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base.
Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank , Berenberg Bank.
In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination.
It ranked 18th in the world for livability in Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub , with several universities and institutions.
Among its most notable cultural venues are the Elbphilharmonie and Laeiszhalle concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles.
Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. Pauli 's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula , between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast.
It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde , Cranz , Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land old land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe.
Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at Hamburg has an oceanic climate Cfb , influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean.
Nearby wetlands also enjoy a maritime temperate climate. The amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of Claudius Ptolemy 2nd century AD reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva.
The name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, and acquired the name Hammaburg , burg meaning castle or fort.
The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain,  as does the exact location of the castle. In , Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric.
The first bishop, Ansgar , became known as the Apostle of the North. Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times.
In , Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around inhabitants. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in and in In , an allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg.
Its trade alliance with Lübeck in marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the trading guild of the Hanseatic League.
This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg. When Jan van Valckenborgh introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg and created a "New Town" Neustadt whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced.
Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges mediatised , but became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg.
Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in Hamburg re-assumed its pre status as a city-state in The Vienna Congress of confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation — In , about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the " Great Fire ".
The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20, homeless.
Reconstruction took more than 40 years. After periodic political unrest, particularly in , Hamburg adopted in a semidemocratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males.
Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation — and of the German Empire — , and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic — Hamburg acceded to the German Customs Union or Zollverein in , the last along with Bremen of the German states to join.
The city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to , as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port.
Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there. A major outbreak of cholera in was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city.
About 8, died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world.
In Nazi Germany — , Hamburg was a Gau from until During the Second World War , Hamburg suffered a series of Allied air raids which devastated much of the city and the harbour.
On 23 July , Royal Air Force RAF firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the Hauptbahnhof main railway station and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as Hammerbrook , Billbrook and Hamm South.
Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the RAF , killed at least 42, civilians; the precise number is not known.
About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook were entirely developed into office, retail and limited residential or industrial districts.
Hamburg had the greatest concentration of Jews in Germany. These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe or to concentration camps.
Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. By the end of the Jüdischer Religionsverband in Hamburg was dissolved as an independent legal entity and its remaining assets and staff were assumed by the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland District Northwest.
On 10 June the Reichssicherheitshauptamt dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree. Hamburg surrendered without a fight to British Forces on 3 May ,  three days after Adolf Hitler 's death.
From to , the Beatles launched their career by playing in various music clubs like the Star Club in the city. On 16 February , a North Sea flood caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than people.
Since German reunification in , and the accession of several Central European and Baltic states into the European Union in , the Port of Hamburg has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre.
On 31 December , there were 1,, people registered as living in Hamburg in an area of There were , women and , men in Hamburg.
For every 1, females, there were 1, males. In , there were 19, births in Hamburg of which In the city, the population was spread out with In , there were 1,, households, of which The average household size was 1.
Hamburg residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December is as follows . Since large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates.
Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch Hanseatic German , although the term is used in appreciation.
However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster , written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently.
Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German.
Less than half of the residents of Hamburg are members of a religion. In late , According to the publication "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" Muslim life in Germany estimated , Muslim migrants counting in nearly 50 countries of origin lived in Hamburg in There are several mosques , including the Ahmadiyya run Fazle Omar Mosque , which is the oldest in the city,  the Islamic Centre Hamburg , and a Jewish community.
The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German states , therefore the Mayor of Hamburg 's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor.
As a German state government , it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services.
Since , the seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus Hamburg City Hall , with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament.
Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs German: Bezirke and subdivided into quarters German: There are localities German: The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws.
The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act of , when the cities Altona , Harburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg.
Each borough is governed by a Borough Council German: Bezirksversammlung and administered by a Municipal Administrator German: The boroughs are not independent municipalities: The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate.
Pauli , Steinwerder , Veddel , Waltershof and Wilhelmsburg. Altona is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From to , Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy.
Altona was an independent city until Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Bergedorf consists of the quarters Allermöhe , Altengamme , Bergedorf —the centre of the former independent town, Billwerder , Curslack , Kirchwerder , Lohbrügge , Moorfleet , Neuengamme , Neuallermöhe , Ochsenwerder , Reitbrook , Spadenland and Tatenberg.
Eimsbüttel is split into nine quarters: Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes.
Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and no skyscrapers see List of tallest buildings in Hamburg.
Churches are important landmarks, such as St Nicholas' , which for a short time in the 19th century was the world's tallest building. Catherine's covered with copper plates, and the Heinrich-Hertz-Turm , the radio and television tower no longer publicly accessible.
The many streams, rivers and canals are crossed by some 2, bridges , more than London , Amsterdam and Venice put together. The town hall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in Europe's largest urban development since , the HafenCity , will house about 10, inhabitants and 15, workers.
The plan includes designs by Rem Koolhaas and Renzo Piano. The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very verdant city.
The Stadtpark , Hamburg's "Central Park", has a great lawn and a huge water tower, which houses one of Europe's biggest planetaria.
The park and its buildings were designed by Fritz Schumacher in the s. The lavish and spacious Planten un Blomen park Low German dialect for "plants and flowers" located in the centre of Hamburg is the green heart of the city.
Within the park are various thematic gardens, the biggest Japanese garden in Germany, and the Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg , which is a historic botanical garden that now consists primarily of greenhouses.
Besides these, there are many more parks of various sizes. In Hamburg celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up.
Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the Planten un Blomen park from May to early October.
Hamburg has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and music venues and clubs. In , more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events.
More than 8, taxable companies average size 3. There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents as compared to three in Berlin and 37 in London.
The English Theatre of Hamburg  near U3 Mundsburg station was established in and is the oldest professional English-speaking theatre in Germany, and has exclusively English native-speaking actors in its company.
Two museum ships near Landungsbrücken bear witness to the freight ship Cap San Diego and cargo sailing ship era Rickmer Rickmers.
Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals. Hamburg State Opera is a leading opera company.
Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg. The main concert venue is the new concert hall Elbphilharmonie. Before it was the Laeiszhalle , Musikhalle Hamburg.
The Laeiszhalle also houses a third orchestra, the Hamburger Symphoniker. This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company Stage Entertainment being based in the city.
Prior to the group's initial recording and widespread fame, Hamburg provided residency and performing venues for the Beatles from to Hamburg has nurtured a number of pop musicians.
Identical twins Bill Kaulitz and Tom Kaulitz from the rock band Tokio Hotel live and maintain a recording studio in Hamburg, where they recorded their second and third albums, Zimmer and Humanoid.
Singer Nena also lives in Hamburg. There is a substantial alternative and punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora , a squatted former theatre located in the Sternschanze.
Hamburg is famous for an original kind of German alternative music called Hamburger Schule "Hamburg School" , a term used for bands like Tocotronic , Blumfeld , Tomte or Kante.
The city was a major centre for heavy metal music in the s. The influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of power metal.
Hamburg has a vibrant psychedelic trance community, with record labels such as Spirit Zone. Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events.
Some of them are street festivals, such as the gay pride Hamburg Pride festival  or the Alster fair German: Alstervergnügen ,  held at the Binnenalster.
Lange Nacht der Museen offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight. Film Tage — presents a wide range of films.
Since , Hamburg has the Dockville music and art festival. It takes place every year in summer in Wilhelmsburg.
Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners. Alsterwasser in reference to the city's river, the Alster is the local name for a type of shandy , a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade Zitronenlimonade , the lemonade being added to the beer.
There is the curious regional dessert pastry called Franzbrötchen. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel.
The name may also reflect to the roll's croissant -like appearance — franz appears to be a shortening of französisch , meaning "French", which would make a Franzbrötchen a "French roll".
Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. The local name is Schrippe scored lengthways for the oval kind and, for the round kind, Rundstück "round piece" rather than mainstream German Brötchen , diminutive form of Brot "bread" ,  a relative of Denmark's rundstykke.
In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and Denmark , especially of Copenhagen , have a lot in common. This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish.
The American hamburger may have developed from Hamburg's Frikadeller: The Oxford Dictionary defined a Hamburger steak in There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity.
Pauli Piers and cruise ship. Hamburg Rathaus City Hall. Reeperbahn , nightlife district of St. Hamburg Hauptbahnhof , busiest railway station in Germany.
Hamburg has long been a centre of alternative music and counter culture movements. The boroughs of St. Pauli , Sternschanze and Altona are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations.
The Rote Flora is a former theatre, which was squatted in in the wake of re-development plans for that area.
Since then, the Rote Flora has become one of the most well-known strongholds against gentrification and a place for radical culture throughout Germany and Europe.
Especially during the 33rd G8 summit in nearby Heiligendamm , the Rote Flora served as an important venue for organising the counter-protests that were taking place back then.
During the G20 summit , which took place in Hamburg from 7—8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the Sternschanze area and particularly around the Rote Flora.
On 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area.
In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors. However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests.
After the summit, however, the Rote Flora issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression.
In particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood.
Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. The American Chamber of Commerce handles matters related to business affairs.
A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley , who reorganized, beginning in , the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street.
In , more than 2, "stumbling blocks" Stolpersteine were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens.
Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution. The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over , businesses.
Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany. The city is the seat of Germany's oldest bank , the Berenberg Bank , M.
The Hamburg Stock Exchange is the oldest of its kind in Germany. The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg , which ranks third to Rotterdam and Antwerpen in Europe and 17th-largest worldwide with transshipments of 8.
Hamburg, along with Seattle and Toulouse , is an important location of the civil aerospace industry. Hamburg is also home to Rotring , the famed maker of technical drawing instruments and pens, and DVA Group , a multinational pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
The HafenCity is Europe's largest urban development project and is located in the Hamburg-Mitte district. It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island Grasbrook , and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm.
It is bordered to the north, separated by the customs channel to Hamburg's city center, west and south by the Elbe and to the east, bounded by the upper harbor, Rothenburgsort.
The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2. HafenCity has hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook.
Residential units for up to 12, people are planned to be built on the site by around the mids, and jobs for up to 40, people, mainly in the office sector, should be created.
It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH , half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages.
Many companies operating in E-Commerce have moved into HafenCity or started there. In China, liquorice Gan Cao has been reported as one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed traditional medicine, which has been used in the treatment of several diseases 4.
The root is termed liquorice and has a sweet odour and smell The genus Glycyrrhiza Leguminosae includes about 30 species such as G.
The first report that indicated an antiviral property of liquorice constituents dates back to 5. In that research, the scientists recognised glycyrrhizic acid and its antiviral activity in vitro, which suppressed the growth and cytopathic effects CPE of numerous DNA and RNA viruses, such as HSV-1, Newcastle disease, Vaccinia virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus 3.
Some reports indicated that a few minor constituents of G. Acyclovir, a nucleoside analog and an antiherpetic drug, has partially fulfilled the need for treating the infection entirely; however, it leads to viral resistance and consequently, viral latency and recurrence 6.
Regarding the increasing rate of HSV resistance to drugs and the evidences of HSV-1 infection in the majority of women before fertility age in Iran 7 finding a novel anti-HSV drugs seems necessary 8.
Objectives The main goal of the current study was in vitro evaluation of possible antiherpetic and virucidal activity of G.
One of the objectives of the current research was to determine the efficacy with respect to the elapsed incubation time and treatment of the cells infected with HSV with the liquorice extract to assess the antiviral activity of G.
In addition, the effect of pretreatment of cells with liquorice root extract and preincubation of virus with G. Materials and Methods 3.
Liquorice root was prepared from Kermanshah, a western province of Iran, which has shown to have the liquorice root of the best quality in Iran 9.
Liquorice roots were dried and grinned into powder. The powder was used for extraction. In the next step, the suspension was kept 18 hours at room temperature 9.
The final mixture was passed through 0. Herpes simplex virus 1 was obtained from Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran. The cells were washed with pre-warmed phosphate buffered saline PBS.
Then different concentrations of liquorice root extract prepared in DMEM were added to the assigned wells. After incubation, the cells were washed by pre-warmed PBS and Neutral Red dye stain solution was added to each well.
The plates were shaken in dark on the shaker for ten minutes until the Neutral Red dye was removed. Staining the Vero Cells. Antiviral Assays Antiviral effects of liquorice root extract on HSV-1 was designed and evaluated in three steps that are discussed below.
Incubation of HSV-1 With Liquorice Root Extracts prior to HSV-1 inoculation To determine whether the extract had any antiherpetic activity against the virus particle, virus serial dilutions were prepared by noncytotoxic concentration 0.
The other steps were as described before. The microplates were monitored for seven days to detect any CPE.
Viral titer was determined by the endpoint dilution method and calculated TCID50 was compared with control virus sample preparation. All tests were considered statistically significant if the P values was less than 0.
Cytotoxicity of the liquorice root extract was examined by Neutral Red assay. The mean value of wells assigned to each extract concentration was measured.
At the mentioned concentration, the Vero cells appeared normal and no noticeable CPE was seen in microscopic monitoring; therefore, the concentrations higher than 0.
As described previously, we examined the possible inhibitory effect of the liquorice root extract on HSV-1 yield in three steps.
The TCID50 of the virus in these two experiments reduced about one logarithm in comparison to the control virus, which was significant.
In order to assess the antiherpetic activity of the liquorice root extract after virus adsorption, the liquorice extract was incubated with Vero cells infected with HSV for one, four, eight, and twelve hours postinfection.
To compare the effect of pretreatment of cells with liquorice root extract and preincubation of virus with liquorice root extract, new experiments were designed, ie, the results were compared to control virus.
Discussion The results of the current study were almost unique. We found more details concerning antiherpetic activity of liquorice root extract including a key observation that determined the efficacy of time course of extract treatment in the cells infected with virus.
Thus, this research highlights the importance of the time course in the process of antiviral effect of G.
In addition, the role of virus pretreatment with liquorice root extract was notable. Moreover, the reliability of TCID50 test in determining the suitable concentration of liquorice root aqueous extract 0.
The antiherpetic activity of liquorice root extract may be due to a number of mechanisms such as the role of G. In this situation, the HSV-1 was inhibited by either directly inactivation of virus or antiadhesive property of G.
The latter hypothesis is in agreement with Wittschier et al. In addition, based on the results of the current study, it might be speculated that the suppression of HSV-1 replication in Vero cells occurs by interruption of the late stages of genes expression.
Data from another study appears to be consistent with the interruption of genes expression in HSV by a medicinal plant named Chamaecyparis obtuse; however, it was effective in the immediate-early stages of gene expression Moreover, traditional Chinese herb, namely, Tripterygium hypoglaucum, has been shown to have anti-HSV properties by suppressing early and late stages of genes expression Other studies have also indicated that liquorice root and its constituents, perform an antiviral activity against HSV that permanently inactivates the virus 5, 15, This might be due to the different components of this plant including glycyrrhizic acid, which inactivates HSV particles 5.
Moreover, animal studies have reported that glycyrrhizin and its derivatives are capable to decrease viral activity and the mortality rate in HSV encephalitis 3.
Another report revealed the key role of glycyrrhizin in improving the impaired resistance of injured mice to the infection by HSV Both compounds of liquorice root, the triterpene glycoside glycyrrhizic acid glycyrrhizin and its aglycone beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, were confirmed to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, and antiviral properties 18, In addition, the antiviral effects of glycyrrhizin by suppressing replication of several viruses were shown in vitro 20, Glycyrrhizin also provides a plausible mechanism for a broad spectrum of antiviral activities including HSV, Flavivirus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Vaccinia virus, Poliovirus type 1 , Vesicular stomatitis virus, IAV, SARS-related Coronavirus, human respiratory syncytial virus, and Arboviruses 3, 5, Future researches are needed to investigate the effect of methanol extraction of G.
Comparing the results can help us to identify the possible correlation or differences in physiologic effects between these two different extracts.
Moreover, further in vivo studies should be conducted to identify significant possible side effects or cytotoxicity of G.
This will help us to verify the inappropriate effects of G. In conclusion, although G.